Molluscum contagiosum is an infection caused by a poxvirus that gives rise to small, benign, white, pink, or flesh-colored, umbilicated, raised papules or nodules located in the epidermal layer of the skin. The disease can be transmitted by direct bodily contact including sexual activity, fomites, or self-inoculation. There has been continued debate about whether physicians should actively treat molluscum contagiosum. Many dermatologists recommend treatment to reduce the incidence of contagious transfer and reduce self-inoculation. Furthermore, individuals with weakened immune systems (eg, patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection) not only are at greater risk for secondary inflammation and bacterial infection but also are prone to lesions that typically persist for prolonged periods. In addition to the commonly administered treatments (ie, physical and chemical destruction), novel treatment opportunities exist, including immunomodulated therapy with imiquimod.