With recent events, the threat of bioterrorism has become a reality. In late 2001, multiple cases of cutaneous and inhalation anthrax were spread through the US mail. On the front line were dermatologists who diagnosed the first cases of cutaneous anthrax in New York City. Since then, physicians who are unsure if they are facing a new form of bioterrorism frequently have consulted dermatologists to evaluate rashes. Because most biological weapons (anthrax, tularemia, plague, smallpox) can have cutaneous manifestations, dermatologists will continue to have an important role in evaluating these potential threats.